隔热混凝土形式

Insulating concrete form systems (ICFs) have been successfully used by European and Canadian builders for decades, yet the systems did not make a mark in the United States until the 1990s. 这个建筑友好的墙系统, which is a variation of poured-in-place concrete construction, has found its way into many new homes across every region and in every price range.

在传统的就地浇筑施工中, 一名工作人员竖起了胶合板的模板, steel, or aluminum that make a mold in the shape of the desired walls. After placing rebar to reinforce the wall, the crew pours concrete inside the cavity. Once the concrete hardens, the crew strips the forms to leave the reinforced concrete walls.

不像这些可移动的形式, ICFs are designed to stay in place as a permanent part of the wall assembly. The formwork functions as the insulation and the concrete functions as the structure.

A handful of these systems are manufactured from hybrid combinations of insulating materials, 包括木纤维和水泥, 或者泡沫塑料珠和水泥. Far more commonly available are ICFs made with expanded or extruded polystyrene, 含有高达20%的可回收材料. Expanded polystyrene is formed by expanding plastic beads in a mold and is similar to vending machine coffee cups. Extruded polystyrene is made by expanding plastic resin and extruding through a die and is similar to grocery store meat trays.

Foam form units typically provide at least two inches  of insulation on both faces of a concrete wall, 哪些通常有4到12英寸厚. The result is a solid assembly with strong thermal properties that holds down energy costs. The integral, permanent insulation allows builders to create super-efficient insulated walls—from an effective R-20 to R-40-in a fraction of the time required with wood or steel frame

The Basics

There are two ways ICFs can arrive on the job: as blocks or planks. The block systems arrive at the site with plastic or metal ties and foam, pre-formed and ready to stack and interlock almost like children's building blocks. Plank systems come as separate panels or planks of foam that are assembled on site with individual ties. The block systems offer labor savings through faster assembly on the site while the plank systems offer savings through more compact shipping.

Within these two basic ICF types, individual systems can vary in the profile of the wall they create. "Flat" systems yield a continuous thickness of concrete, like a conventionally poured wall. The wall produced by "grid" systems has a waffle pattern where the concrete is thicker at some points than others. "Post and beam" systems have just that—discrete horizontal and vertical columns of concrete that are completely encapsulated in foam insulation. 无论他们的差异, 所有主要的ICF系统都是工程师设计的, code-accepted和战地.

While the formwork is stacked or assembled vertical and horizontal reinforcement is installed. Then contractors pump concrete into the cavity to create a solid structural wall with insulation on both sides. Once crews complete the wall, electricians cut channels for cables and wires into the forms. 水管工也可以以类似的方式工作, placing cold and hot water lines in the insulation after the concrete is poured.

The insulation provided by the forms gives builders the ability to successfully place concrete even during extremes of weather. Few weather conditions affect a pour because the form insulates the concrete, allowing it to cure while isolated from outside temperature or humidity. Because of ideal curing conditions created within the forms , 出现严重裂缝的风险降低了. The left-in-place forms provide a continuous insulation and sound barrier.

ICFs can be cut to any shape to allow for unique home designs or site conditions. 因为icf提供了一个单位, 连续的表面上工作, troweled finishes generally go onto ICFs with little advance preparation. In addition, the ends of the ties themselves are typically designed to accept fasteners to permit interior drywall to be installed directly over the forms. Similarly, this built-in furring permits mechanical attachment of exterior finishes like lath for stucco, 毛皮和直接连接的壁板, or masonry veneer. There are even brick ledge forms to help further simplify brick installation.

Currently, ICFs are used to build walls for all types of buildings, and several manufacturers have additional forming components that will allow the construction of attached concrete floors and/or roofs. There are several brands of foam forming systems readily available in almost every region of the country.

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