摇上混凝土

tiltupTilt-up concrete gets its name from the manner in 哪一个 construction occurs: by lifting or tilting panels with a crane to form the walls of buildings. 面板可以生产多种形状和尺寸,包括平面和弯曲部分. 混凝土浇筑是快速和简单的,因为它是在地面上完成的. 地板表面用作浇铸床,有时也建造独立的浇铸床. 如果空间有限,面板可以相互堆叠. 由于面板是现场铸造的,它们的尺寸不受运输考虑的限制. Panels are typically rather large in size so that there are relatively few joints in buildings.

倾斜的结构以合理的成本建造, 需要很少的维护, 以最小的资本投资提供长期的耐久性和建设速度. Panels usually serve as structure and finish and can be insulated as needed for energy efficiency.

虽然这个行业已经有100多年的历史了, its popularity increased markedly following the 1980 introduction of an American 混凝土 Institute committee (ACI 551) dedicated to it, 1986年,倾斜混凝土协会成立. 最近, 设计灵活性的进步, 优质完成, 更好的绝缘技术, and the ability to build smaller structures more economically have increased the appeal of tilt-up. 专门从事倾斜的承包商在整个美国都是可用的.S.

以下几点描述了低层建筑的倾斜混凝土板:

  • 优势
  • 大小
  • 制造及物理性能
  • 安装、连接和完成
  • 可持续发展和能源
  • 建筑规范
  • 比较成本
  • 项目

优势

倾斜式施工既快速又经济. While it became popular for large buildings with simple floor plans (“big box construction”), 新技术扩大了市场,提高了设计的灵活性, 适合小型建筑和布局复杂的建筑. 成功的关键是计划. 现在的学校, 零售, 商业及市民项目, 宗教建筑, 住宅是常见的应用, 太.

Contractors appreciate that much of the work is done at ground level and is fast and efficient, 重复可以节省时间. 制作倾斜的混凝土板本质上就像浇铸板而不是墙. 模板放置更快更简单,包括门和窗户开口的遮挡. Panels are cast on site and if space is tight, they can be stack-cast to minimize site disturbance.

浇筑后在倾斜面板上涂饰混凝土

为业主, 倾斜的吸引力在于耐久性和抵御灾害的能力, 水, 和昆虫. The heavy mass and large panel size also leads to good energy efficiency and sound performance due to thermal mass and airtight enclosures.


大小

未绝缘的面板通常有7到12英寸厚. 绝缘板是三明治式结构. 外表面有2到3英寸厚, 绝缘材料有2到6英寸厚, and the inner layer is the structural portion of the wall with a thickness similar to uninsulated panels. 连接器通过绝缘层插入,将两个混凝土面连接在一起.

Advan水泥s in lifting inserts means that there are fewer limitations on panel size: 50-foot- tall panels are common. 占地面积可能是尺寸上的一个限制. 因为嵌板必须用起重机吊到合适的位置, their weight versus crane capacity is another limiting factor and the crane should have a safety margin of three to one for this purpose. 但是面板不需要用卡车运送到一个地点,所以这对尺寸没有限制.

制造及物理性能

基础、楼板(或浇筑)板应做好混凝土浇筑准备. 模板通常是木材,但也可以是可重复使用的塑料或金属. 钢筋是其他混凝土工程中使用的常规钢材. 提升插入, 焊盘, 其他硬件都被称为“嵌入”,并放置在混凝土之前. 断开键器用于在铸坯上覆层,以方便吊起镶板. 如果吊车将放置在平板的一部分上, 它的厚度可能需要增加,超过建筑本身的要求.

混凝土通常从现成的拌料生产商订购. 可指定混合料具有高强度或早期强度,以满足工程需要. 混凝土可以直接从卡车溜槽或泵放置更精确的位置. 它是巩固的,用镘刀完成和固化.
tiltup_troweling
在倾斜的面板上擦混凝土.
tiltup-curing
将固化化合物应用于倾斜的混凝土面板上.
倾斜向上是不封闭的面板正在铸造, 因此,寒冷的天气可以应用混凝土程序. 幸运的是,它是相当容易保护在等级铸造从极端温度.

安装、连接和完成

摊牌后铸造, 面板的安装方式是将板吊起并固定在基础/板上. The combination of dowels from the slab and attachment to adjacent panels provides the structural integrity of the building. 在放置过程中,面板被支撑起来,直到它们全部绑在一起形成墙壁. 按照计划,快速连续地进行吊装操作. 浇铸到混凝土中的连接件允许面板焊接在一起. 然后用密封胶填满垂直接缝.

tiltup-panel-to-slab
 长壁板附着在混凝土板上.
倾斜向上的墙板被支撑在适当的位置.
tiltup-white-facing-mix建筑混凝土处理为面板增加了丰富的细节和表面外观. 乡村和揭示可以创造各种面板大小和阴影线的外观. Finishes and panel configurations have seen much development in recent years so that these panels offer the same versatility as other concrete wall systems. 常见的饰面包括彩色混凝土、外露骨料和形成衬砌纹理. Facing mixes can make any of these finishes more economical by placing the special concrete mixture in the outer 1 or 2 inches of the panel’s face. 特殊的镶嵌物可用于创建薄砖或薄砌块砌体表面. 交替, 表面可以涂上或抹上灰泥纹理, although these finishes may require periodic maintenance unnecessary with the cast-in treatments.

铸造技术已经非常先进,现在可以铸造曲面板. 这需要在地面上建造特殊的模板, 但是在第一次选角之后, 如果需要的话,这些可以像平板一样堆叠起来.

可持续发展和能源

可倾斜的面板可以是坚固的混凝土,或者他们可以是三明治式建筑. Insulation can be incorporated into tilt-up to provide energy efficient construction with hard exterior wall surfaces. 通常使用2到6英寸厚的挤压聚苯乙烯. Walls can range from R-values of about 2 for uninsulated panels up to about 32 for walls containing thicker layers of insulation. 由于建筑规范要求更高的能源效率,隔热层的厚度也随之增加. 但就像所有的混凝土系统一样,倾斜提供了高热质量和密封结构. 嵌板也意味着更少的接头和减少空气渗透.

能源性能是倾斜向上的环境友好性的重要组成部分, 但这并不是它所能提供的全部. All the other aspects of sustainability that apply to any type of concrete construction apply to tilt-up. 在倾斜混凝土中有回收的潜力. 墙板可以拆卸,混凝土在其寿命结束时可以回收. 这是当地生产的. 它耐用,维护费用低.

建筑规范

倾斜的建筑被覆盖 国际建筑规范 (IBC)在钢筋混凝土截面. 通常由有执照的结构工程师设计. 中没有提到倾斜 国际住宅代码 (IRC). 倾斜混凝土协会(TCA)有设计指南可用. ACI公司出版的 可倾斜混凝土板设计指南, ACI 551.2R-10, 哪一个 presents information to expand on the provision of ACI 318 to make it more specific to tilt-up construction.

比较成本

Tilt-up construction was traditionally most economical for larger panel sizes and bigger buildings. Advan水泥s and planning have made it more cost competitive even for smaller sized buildings, 在5,000平方英尺的范围内. 独栋住宅, it can be economical for subdivision development where several buildings are constructed at one time. 重复和规模经济都可以节省时间和金钱.

摇上项目

小信封,大成果:单家庭和倾斜向上

tiltup_res倾斜式建筑在大型建筑中很受欢迎, 建筑简单,因为这种方法快捷高效, 这些优势在这个市场上很重要. 但在合适的条件下, tilt-up can also be an efficient building method for even the most modestly sized single-family construction. 小型起重机的出现也有所帮助. 利用好起重设备是很重要的, 太, 这也可以在规划好的社区中实现,那里的许多建筑都是连续建造的. 这里描述的原型住宅是基于绝缘倾斜墙和天花板面板.

在大小,规模和设计上,这个家是适中的. 它的设计几乎有西南的感觉, but it’s easy to imagine how its appearance could be adapted to a wide variety of architectural styles, 从传统到现代. The floor area is 1,754-square-feet and the simple, rectangular plan is suited to flat wall sections. 只需要30块面板就可以创建整个结构, 包括一个小的前院,增加了布局的趣味性. 面板大小不一, 最高的有18英尺, 最宽的34英尺8英寸, 最大的324平方英尺. 面板最大重量为32450磅.

tiltup_res_construction房子的地板是一块平地, 哪一个, 像往常一样倾斜施工, 作为墙板的浇铸底座. 墙体和屋面构件为夹层式结构,整体保温. Two concrete facing panels are connected through their foam core using fiber composite connectors. 由于没有热桥连接,这提供了优异的能源性能. 结构坚固, 固体, 并且能抵抗各种力量, 包括强风和冲击-卓越的耐久性. Exterior finishes can be as simple as, in this case, a light stucco texturing, or more detailed. 倾斜的常用装饰技术包括通过油漆形成衬垫纹理和颜色, 污渍, 或整体颜色.

尽管它可以在任何地方建造, 这座房子位于约旦, 一个需要为军队和政府机构提供现代化住房的国家. 该模型受到了当地政府高层官员的高度关注. 这又证明了这种构造方法的简易性, 承包商能够克服具有挑战性的语言障碍, 为当地半熟练木匠和工人提供监督和培训, 教他们如何放置和浇筑混凝土, 形成和放置面板, 竖立和支撑最终的产品.

平价美学重现历史魅力

tiltup_shelmore对于Shelmore村, the owner needed to create a design with flexible live/work spaces– functional for living space, 办公室, 和零售. 只使用三种布局, designers created first-level floor plans with inviting storefronts and two floors of comfortable and private residential above—41 units in all. But the owner also wanted each unit to have a sense of individuality similar to the downtown Charleston Business District.

虽然船主没有倾斜的经验, they selected it with help from the design/build contractor as a cost effective way to construct affordable housing. 除了结构解决方案, 倾斜混凝土还提供了优异的抗震性能, 单位之间的防火墙, 它们也可以作为隔音屏障, 高耐久性和低维护, 以及交货速度.

The confined site of less than four acres required significant amounts of stacking panels—some up to five high—and detailed coordination of forming, 倒, 完成, 和安装. 最高的面板有34英尺1英寸. 高,最大的715平方英尺. 由于面板的数量和尺寸需要生产9个三层的建筑, 施工阶段是提升一些面板,然后重新使用浇铸板.

倾斜式倾斜越来越受欢迎, 简单的建筑, the so-called “big-box 零售” stores that frequently have square or rectangular foot打印s and not much ornamentation. But advan水泥s in tilt-up now allow for more complex building layouts and improved architectural treatments that increase its appeal for a wider range of applications. 其中许多技术在Shelmore村使用过. 在这种情况下, designers were tasked with recreating the charm of Historic Charleston – preserving the aesthetically pleasing nature of the late 17th and early 18th century architecture – but at an affordable cost. 他们通过改变屋顶线和建筑后退来实现这一点, 表面材料, 和其他外部装饰和口音. 的组合砖, 护墙板, 灰泥和外墙保温系统(EIFS), and concrete exterior give a varied street appearance that disguises the underlying 固体 concrete walls. 其他完成的细节包括入口雨棚, 锻铁栏杆和饰面, 百叶窗和圆形窗户开口, 、多层次的门廊. 其结果是经济适用房的细节发现优良的定制住宅.