卡耐基-梅隆_arch混凝土 masonry systems (CMS) are familiar to most people because they have been used for such a long time. All types of low-rise buildings are made with these materials, from residential to educational to commercial and industrial. 的 tough exterior of exposed units provides a durable finish in demanding environments. And architects often prefer the aesthetic appeal of masonry to many other finishes.

混凝土 masonry units are manufactured from very dry, stiff concrete mixtures. 的 “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, 摇晃并压实, 和demolded很快. Units are stiff enough to hold their shape as they enter the curing chamber. Afterwards, they are palletized and readied for shipping. Factories through the country manufactured concrete masonry units, adding to local economies and meeting sustainable criteria for availability.


在过去的100年里, manufacture of concrete masonry units (卡耐基-梅隆) transitioned from a hand cast process to a highly automated one. Single molds compacted by hand gave way to ganged molds that travel on assembly lines in high-tech manufacturing facilities. 的se changes have also led to excellent quality control and uniformity of units.

混凝土 masonry units are manufactured from very dry, stiff concrete mixtures. 的 “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, 摇晃并压实, 和demolded很快. Units are stiff enough to hold their shape as they enter the curing chamber. Afterwards, they are palletized and readied for shipping. 的y are manufactured throughout the country, adding to local economies and meeting sustainable criteria for availability.


It’s hard to determine which attribute of 卡耐基-梅隆 is its best. It may vary from one project to another. Certainly, the fact that these are non-combustible is very important. 它们经久耐用, 能提供一个有吸引力的整理, can be reinforced as needed to meet demanding structural applications, 可含回收物料, do not require painting or other treatment, contain no volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or other potentially harmful offgassing materials, and provide thermal mass to maintain uniform temperatures.

从建筑的角度来看, a nice feature of masonry is that it can be built without much space for staging the construction. On constricted sites or between buildings, this is helpful. It may be more labor intensive than some other concrete construction, but materials are literally available off the shelf and this is advantageous because there is less chance for time delays waiting for special orders.

Sizes, Components, Configurations, Systems

结算系统是模块化. 的 most common size is a nominal 8-by-8-by-16- inches. Door and window openings are positioned to minimize cutting of units. Walls that contain one vertical layer of units are called single wythe and two layers are double wythe. It is most common to build single- or double-wythe walls. When wythes are separated by a continuous vertical space, the assembly is known as a cavity wall. 部队用迫击炮团结在一起.

Reinfor水泥 is placed into horizontal and vertical cavities as needed, with grout placed around it. This helps walls to carry loads and resist other forces acting on them.

Insulation may be added to interior or exterior faces, 烟囱隔板之间, 或者在特殊的单元腔内. 的 benefit of keeping the insulation inside the wall is that the masonry faces are quite durable. Other accessories may be needed to promote proper drainage, 连接完成, 用其他方法来完成这面墙.


砖石工程是由熟练的石匠铺设的. 的y place mortar between units to tie them together. Masonry requires little machinery for pla水泥: a mason and a trowel are the two main 薄gs necessary.

Walls, wi薄 and between them, are tied together with reinfor水泥. Joint reinfor水泥 may be used along mortar joints to help control cracking in the wall. Anchors, plates, and other items that are common with other construction are used in masonry, too.

Finishes are often simplified when using masonry. 它可以密封或涂漆. It can be plastered for aesthetics and improved moisture resistance. 但在许多情况下,它是暴露的. This can be done with plain or architectural units. Some finishes are made specifically for durability in moist exposures, 像更衣室, 池, 或厨房或洗衣设施. 的se masonry surfaces are often brightly colored to provide a hard, attractive finish.


混凝土 masonry is sustainable for a number of reasons. 它可以包含回收材料. It is made from local materials and usually shipped short distances to a project. 的se aspects often contribute toward credits in green rating systems.

Masonry construction is energy efficient, providing thermal mass to help moderate temperature in buildings. Lighter weight units are made with lightweight aggregate to help provide added thermal resistance. In addition, masonry walls can be insulated in a wide variety of ways.


砌体有自己的规范要求. A Code and Specification jointly published by 砌体社会, 美国混凝土协会, and the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers are written as legal documents so that they may be adopted by reference in general building codes. 的y address materials, labor, design, and construction.


混凝土 Masonry Affords Opportunities for Building Green on Infill Sites

Infill sites are neglected public spaces and clusters of vacant or nearly-empty buildings and land in either urban or suburban communities. 混凝土 masonry units (卡耐基-梅隆) are an ideal building material for infill projects because there is often no adjacent space available for large equipment or staging areas. And because these projects tend to be tall, 薄, and closely situated to property lines, 内在的力量, 耐火性, and noise abatement of 卡耐基-梅隆s provide an economical solution.

One recent infill project is an eco-friendly residence in southern California. It has a small carbon foot打印 in balance with lifestyle common in the area, but functions as a high-performance building.

Twenhofel Middle School: Benefits Add Up in Classroom Settings

附近的辛辛那提, Twenhofel Middle School was one of Kentucky’s first schools to incorporate sustainable building principles and energy conservation measures. In 2004, these ideas were not necessarily revolutionary, but neither had they been the focus of school 管理员 prior to that time. 的 excellent results achieved with Twenhofel have only increased the district’s efforts to do more of the same.

的 backbone of this school is concrete masonry. Generally, one reason concrete masonry has been so popular in schools is its durability. Hard surfaces stand up to wear and tear that is so common in schools and other high usage areas. 的 walls of Twenhofel are double-wythe masonry, consisting of 卡耐基-梅隆 backup and an exterior clay brick finish with 1½ inches of insulation in between for an R-15 rating. Like most walls with thermal mass, these masonry sections perform better than their apparent R-value. 这个建筑, along with many other energy-efficient features, results in 31 percent less energy usage than an average Kentucky school. That’s good for the environment and is a direct savings to the school’s bottom line.

超出了能源效率的范围, this school is designed with a whole array of features that focus on performance. 这里有一个地热暖通系统, increased glazing to improve daylighting and minimize artificial lighting, collection of solar power via a photovoltaic system, 减少用水.

Benefits of building high performance schools include:

  • 能提高学生成绩
  • 每日平均出勤率增加
  • Increased teacher satisfaction and retention
  • 降低能源和运营成本
  • 对环境的积极影响

As one of the first schools in Kentucky to accomplish these achievements, Twenhofel has been a model and a learning tool. 的 building itself has monitors and transparent panels as a way to place a focus on building operations and teach about sustainability and energy efficient design and operation. 的 ability to use the facility as a teaching tool encourages conservation among occupants, 老师, 管理员, 和学生一样.


的re are many helpful tools for designing and building with masonry. 的 National 混凝土 Masonry Association has online technical publication known as TEK表 以及混凝土砌筑的细节. 

的 砖行业协会 also publishes technical notes for clay masonry (brick). 还有一些其他的群体,比如 砌体社会 publish guides and other documents used for the design and construction of masonry.